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The textual sources for Arthur are usually divided into those written before Geoffrey's Historia known as pre-Galfridian texts, from the Latin form of Geoffrey, Galfridus and those written afterwards, which could not avoid his influence Galfridian, or post-Galfridian, texts.
The earliest literary references to Arthur come from Welsh and Breton sources. A academic survey led by Caitlin Green has identified three key strands to the portrayal of Arthur in this earliest material.
Some of these are human threats, such as the Saxons he fights in the Historia Brittonum , but the majority are supernatural, including giant cat-monsters , destructive divine boars , dragons, dogheads , giants, and witches.
On the one hand, he launches assaults on Otherworldly fortresses in search of treasure and frees their prisoners. On the other, his warband in the earliest sources includes former pagan gods, and his wife and his possessions are clearly Otherworldly in origin.
One of the most famous Welsh poetic references to Arthur comes in the collection of heroic death-songs known as Y Gododdin The Gododdin , attributed to 6th-century poet Aneirin.
One stanza praises the bravery of a warrior who slew enemies, but says that despite this, "he was no Arthur" — that is, his feats cannot compare to the valour of Arthur.
The Welsh prose tale Culhwch and Olwen c. The story as a whole tells of Arthur helping his kinsman Culhwch win the hand of Olwen , daughter of Ysbaddaden Chief-Giant, by completing a series of apparently impossible tasks, including the hunt for the great semi-divine boar Twrch Trwyth.
The 9th-century Historia Brittonum also refers to this tale, with the boar there named Troy n t.
The later manuscripts of the Triads are partly derivative from Geoffrey of Monmouth and later continental traditions, but the earliest ones show no such influence and are usually agreed to refer to pre-existing Welsh traditions.
In addition to these pre-Galfridian Welsh poems and tales, Arthur appears in some other early Latin texts besides the Historia Brittonum and the Annales Cambriae.
In particular, Arthur features in a number of well-known vitae " Lives " of post-Roman saints , none of which are now generally considered to be reliable historical sources the earliest probably dates from the 11th century.
Cadoc delivers them as demanded, but when Arthur takes possession of the animals, they turn into bundles of ferns. A less obviously legendary account of Arthur appears in the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii , which is often claimed to date from the early 11th century although the earliest manuscript of this text dates from the 15th century and the text is now dated to the late 12th to early 13th century.
Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae , completed c. He incorporates Arthur's father Uther Pendragon , his magician advisor Merlin , and the story of Arthur's conception, in which Uther, disguised as his enemy Gorlois by Merlin's magic, sleeps with Gorlois's wife Igerna Igraine at Tintagel , and she conceives Arthur.
On Uther's death, the fifteen-year-old Arthur succeeds him as King of Britain and fights a series of battles, similar to those in the Historia Brittonum , culminating in the Battle of Bath.
He then defeats the Picts and Scots before creating an Arthurian empire through his conquests of Ireland, Iceland and the Orkney Islands.
After twelve years of peace, Arthur sets out to expand his empire once more, taking control of Norway, Denmark and Gaul. Gaul is still held by the Roman Empire when it is conquered, and Arthur's victory leads to a further confrontation with Rome.
Arthur and his warriors, including Kaius Kay , Beduerus Bedivere and Gualguanus Gawain , defeat the Roman emperor Lucius Tiberius in Gaul but, as he prepares to march on Rome, Arthur hears that his nephew Modredus Mordred —whom he had left in charge of Britain—has married his wife Guenhuuara Guinevere and seized the throne.
Arthur returns to Britain and defeats and kills Modredus on the river Camblam in Cornwall, but he is mortally wounded.
He hands the crown to his kinsman Constantine and is taken to the isle of Avalon to be healed of his wounds, never to be seen again.
How much of this narrative was Geoffrey's own invention is open to debate. He seems to have made use of the list of Arthur's twelve battles against the Saxons found in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum , along with the battle of Camlann from the Annales Cambriae and the idea that Arthur was still alive.
Whatever his sources may have been, the immense popularity of Geoffrey's Historia Regum Britanniae cannot be denied.
Well over manuscript copies of Geoffrey's Latin work are known to have survived, as well as translations into other languages.
The old notion that some of these Welsh versions actually underlie Geoffrey's Historia , advanced by antiquarians such as the 18th-century Lewis Morris, has long since been discounted in academic circles.
While it was not the only creative force behind Arthurian romance, many of its elements were borrowed and developed e.
The popularity of Geoffrey's Historia and its other derivative works such as Wace 's Roman de Brut gave rise to a significant numbers of new Arthurian works in continental Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly in France.
There is clear evidence that Arthur and Arthurian tales were familiar on the Continent before Geoffrey's work became widely known see for example, the Modena Archivolt ,  and "Celtic" names and stories not found in Geoffrey's Historia appear in the Arthurian romances.
Whereas Arthur is very much at the centre of the pre-Galfridian material and Geoffrey's Historia itself, in the romances he is rapidly sidelined.
So, he simply turns pale and silent when he learns of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere in the Mort Artu , whilst in Yvain, the Knight of the Lion , he is unable to stay awake after a feast and has to retire for a nap.
Lacy has observed, whatever his faults and frailties may be in these Arthurian romances, "his prestige is never—or almost never—compromised by his personal weaknesses However, the most significant for the development of the Arthurian legend are Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart , which introduces Lancelot and his adulterous relationship with Arthur's queen Guinevere , extending and popularising the recurring theme of Arthur as a cuckold , and Perceval, the Story of the Grail , which introduces the Holy Grail and the Fisher King and which again sees Arthur having a much reduced role.
Perceval , although unfinished, was particularly popular: four separate continuations of the poem appeared over the next half century, with the notion of the Grail and its quest being developed by other writers such as Robert de Boron , a fact that helped accelerate the decline of Arthur in continental romance.
Up to c. The most significant of these 13th-century prose romances was the Vulgate Cycle also known as the Lancelot-Grail Cycle , a series of five Middle French prose works written in the first half of that century.
The cycle continued the trend towards reducing the role played by Arthur in his own legend, partly through the introduction of the character of Galahad and an expansion of the role of Merlin.
During this period, Arthur was made one of the Nine Worthies , a group of three pagan, three Jewish and three Christian exemplars of chivalry.
The Worthies were first listed in Jacques de Longuyon 's Voeux du Paon in , and subsequently became a common subject in literature and art.
The development of the medieval Arthurian cycle and the character of the "Arthur of romance" culminated in Le Morte d'Arthur , Thomas Malory 's retelling of the entire legend in a single work in English in the late 15th century.
Malory based his book—originally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table —on the various previous romance versions, in particular the Vulgate Cycle, and appears to have aimed at creating a comprehensive and authoritative collection of Arthurian stories.
The end of the Middle Ages brought with it a waning of interest in King Arthur. Although Malory's English version of the great French romances was popular, there were increasing attacks upon the truthfulness of the historical framework of the Arthurian romances — established since Geoffrey of Monmouth's time — and thus the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain.
So, for example, the 16th-century humanist scholar Polydore Vergil famously rejected the claim that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire, found throughout the post-Galfridian medieval "chronicle tradition", to the horror of Welsh and English antiquarians.
In the early 19th century, medievalism , Romanticism , and the Gothic Revival reawakened interest in Arthur and the medieval romances.
A new code of ethics for 19th-century gentlemen was shaped around the chivalric ideals embodied in the "Arthur of romance".
This renewed interest first made itself felt in , when Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur was reprinted for the first time since Tennyson's Arthurian work reached its peak of popularity with Idylls of the King , however, which reworked the entire narrative of Arthur's life for the Victorian era.
It was first published in and sold 10, copies within the first week. This interest in the "Arthur of romance" and his associated stories continued through the 19th century and into the 20th, and influenced poets such as William Morris and Pre-Raphaelite artists including Edward Burne-Jones.
While Tom maintained his small stature and remained a figure of comic relief, his story now included more elements from the medieval Arthurian romances and Arthur is treated more seriously and historically in these new versions.
By the end of the 19th century, it was confined mainly to Pre-Raphaelite imitators,  and it could not avoid being affected by World War I , which damaged the reputation of chivalry and thus interest in its medieval manifestations and Arthur as chivalric role model.
In the latter half of the 20th century, the influence of the romance tradition of Arthur continued, through novels such as T.
Bradley's tale, for example, takes a feminist approach to Arthur and his legend, in contrast to the narratives of Arthur found in medieval materials,  and American authors often rework the story of Arthur to be more consistent with values such as equality and democracy.
The romance Arthur has become popular in film and theatre as well. White's novel was adapted into the Lerner and Loewe stage musical Camelot and Walt Disney 's animated film The Sword in the Stone ; Camelot , with its focus on the love of Lancelot and Guinevere and the cuckolding of Arthur, was itself made into a film of the same name in Retellings and reimaginings of the romance tradition are not the only important aspect of the modern legend of King Arthur.
Attempts to portray Arthur as a genuine historical figure of c. As Taylor and Brewer have noted, this return to the medieval "chronicle tradition" of Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Historia Brittonum is a recent trend which became dominant in Arthurian literature in the years following the outbreak of the Second World War , when Arthur's legendary resistance to Germanic enemies struck a chord in Britain.
Arthur has also been used as a model for modern-day behaviour. In the s, the Order of the Fellowship of the Knights of the Round Table was formed in Britain to promote Christian ideals and Arthurian notions of medieval chivalry.
As Norris J. Lacy has observed, "The popular notion of Arthur appears to be limited, not surprisingly, to a few motifs and names, but there can be no doubt of the extent to which a legend born many centuries ago is profoundly embedded in modern culture at every level.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Legendary British leader of the late 5th and early 6th centuries. For other uses, see Arthur Pendragon disambiguation and King Arthur disambiguation.
Main article: Historicity of King Arthur. Main article: Arthur. Wyeth's title page illustration for The Boy's King Arthur See also: List of works based on Arthurian legends.
England portal History portal Cornwall portal. Y Gododdin cannot be dated precisely: it describes 6th-century events and contains 9th- or 10th-century spelling, but the surviving copy is 13th-century.
See Rahtz and Carey VII, n. Studien zur römischen Namengebung. Helsinki , p. On his possessions and wife, see also Ford See Haycock , pp.
On the Glastonbury tale and its Otherworldly antecedents, see Sims-Williams , pp. See further, Roberts b and Roberts New York: Overlook Duckworth See List of books about King Arthur.
Bromwich, Rachel; Evans, D. Simon , Culhwch and Olwen. Brooke, Christopher N. Budgey, A. Bullock-Davies, C.
Burgess, Glyn S. Burns, E. Carley, J. Charles-Edwards, Thomas M. Coe, John B. Crick, Julia C. Dumville, D. Barron entre otros. XIII hasta mediados del XIV , se hicieron asimismo refundiciones gallegas o portuguesas de los antedichos relatos, desgraciadamente no conservadas.
Las traducciones principales impresas fueron:. Cuentos y leyendas de Galicia. Wyeth , Lancelot Speed y Arthur Rackham. Walter Crane.
La espada Excalibur , Howard Pyle Batalla final entre Arturo y Mordred, obra de Arthur Rackham. Pollard , Obra de Arthur Rackham.
Rey Arturo - portada. Obra de N. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Barron T. Ginebra , la esposa de Arturo.
Las secciones de curiosidades deben ser evitadas. Siruela, ; p. Archivado desde el original el 3 de octubre de Consultado el 19 de agosto de The name on the stone is in no way directly associated with King Arthur, a legendary and literary figure.
Madrid: Alianza, ISBN Bellum Badonis, in quo Arthur portavit crucem Domini nostri Jesu Christi tribus diebus et tribus noctibus in humeros suos et Britones victores fuerunt.
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