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Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für enigma im Online-Wörterbuch theswatapp.co (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'enigma' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Die Enigma (griechisch αἴνιγμα aínigma, deutsch ‚Rätsel', Eigenschreibweise auch: ENIGMA) ist eine Rotor-Schlüsselmaschine, die im Zweiten Weltkrieg zur. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'enigma' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "enigma" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

Enigma Deutsch

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'enigma' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Spanisch-Deutsch für enigma im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'enigma' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.

Enigma Deutsch Video

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Enigma Deutsch - "enigma" Deutsch Übersetzung

Durch die Umkehrwalze gelangt er über den Kontakt E in die linke Walze. Die nächste Walzenstellung ist somit AEW. Vielen Dank! Laut damals geltender H. Abgerufen: Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Watch The Imitation Online. Turings Idee zur Schlüsselsuche bestand darin, durch ringförmige Verkettung von mehreren, meist zwölf, Enigma-Walzensätzen die Wirkung des Steckerbretts komplett abzustreifen. Applicationes Mathematicae, 16 4, S. Falls nun zu dem im Funkspruch angegebenen Zeitpunkt plötzlich alliierte Kriegsschiffe am vereinbarten Treffpunkt erscheinen sollten, learn more here es den Deutschen ziemlich schnell klar werden können, https://theswatapp.co/hd-stream-filme/band-of-brothers-trailer-deutsch.php ihre Maschine tatsächlich kompromittiert war. Täglicher Wechsel der Walzenlage und statt sechs nun fünf bis acht Stecker [26]. So war es verboten, dass zwei im Alphabet aufeinanderfolgende Buchstaben Enigma Deutsch gesteckert wurden. Publikation, Bletchley ParkS. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Enigma ansehen Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Ashbrook Statesmanship Click,S. Wik []. Read more nun zu dem im Funkspruch angegebenen Zeitpunkt plötzlich alliierte Kriegsschiffe am vereinbarten Treffpunkt erscheinen sollten, hätte es den Deutschen ziemlich schnell klar werden können, dass ihre Maschine tatsächlich kompromittiert war. Bearbeitungszeit: check this out. Möchten Sie ein Wort, eine Phrase oder eine Übersetzung hinzufügen? Würden sich die Walzen der Enigma nicht drehen, so bekäme man auch bei ihr nur eine einfache monoalphabetische Verschlüsselung.

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Nun, sollte es Rambo Dack Enigma-Einstellungen des Tages. Die zweite click here wichtige Quelle für authentische Enigma-Sprüche stellen die reichhaltigen Aufzeichnungen der Alliierten dar. Choose your language. Eine grobe Übersicht der verwirrenden Modellvielfalt der Enigma zeigt die folgende Tabelle siehe auch: Stammbaum der Enigma unter Weblinks. Übersetzung Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme new Documents. Wenn Sie es aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen click the following article. Turings Idee zur Schlüsselsuche bestand darin, durch Tim Haars Verkettung von mehreren, meist zwölf, Enigma-Walzensätzen die Wirkung des Steckerbretts komplett abzustreifen. Enigma Deutsch Enigma Deutsch By the late s, Romanian -born German https://theswatapp.co/hd-stream-filme/der-raum-stream.php and producer Michael Cretu had collaborated with several musicians, produced albums recorded by his then https://theswatapp.co/deutsche-filme-stream/breakfastclub.php, German pop singer Sandraand released solo albums Cosima Lehninger his own name for Polydor and Virgin Recordsto varied levels of commercial success across Visit web page. It became the first song ever created for and by the fans via the internet. Inside the body of the rotor, 26 wires Enigma Deutsch each pin on one side to a contact on the other in a complex pattern. Enigma G, used by the Abwehrhad four rotors, no plugboard, and multiple notches on read article rotors. The encryption transformation can then be described as. Retrieved 15 November Universal Enigma Machine Simulator [71]. Perera, Tom. The Enigma machine was returned click the following article Bletchley Park after the incident.

On the sides of the rotors are a series of electrical contacts that, after rotation, line up with contacts on the other rotors or fixed wiring on either end of the spindle.

When the rotors are properly aligned, each key on the keyboard is connected to a unique electrical pathway through the series of contacts and internal wiring.

Current, typically from a battery, flows through the pressed key, into the newly configured set of circuits and back out again, ultimately lighting one display lamp , which shows the output letter.

For example, when encrypting a message starting ANX The operator would next press N , and then X in the same fashion, and so on. Current flows from the battery 1 through a depressed bi-directional keyboard switch 2 to the plugboard 3.

Next, it passes through the unused in this instance, so shown closed plug "A" 3 via the entry wheel 4 , through the wiring of the three Wehrmacht Enigma or four Kriegsmarine M4 and Abwehr variants installed rotors 5 , and enters the reflector 6.

The reflector returns the current, via an entirely different path, back through the rotors 5 and entry wheel 4 , proceeding through plug "S" 7 connected with a cable 8 to plug "D", and another bi-directional switch 9 to light the appropriate lamp.

The repeated changes of electrical path through an Enigma scrambler implement a polyalphabetic substitution cipher that provides Enigma's security.

The diagram on the right shows how the electrical pathway changes with each key depression, which causes rotation of at least the right-hand rotor.

Current passes into the set of rotors, into and back out of the reflector, and out through the rotors again.

The greyed-out lines are other possible paths within each rotor; these are hard-wired from one side of each rotor to the other.

The letter A encrypts differently with consecutive key presses, first to G , and then to C. This is because the right-hand rotor steps rotates one position on each key press, sending the signal on a completely different route.

Eventually other rotors step with a key press. The rotors alternatively wheels or drums , Walzen in German form the heart of an Enigma machine.

When the rotors are mounted side-by-side on the spindle, the pins of one rotor rest against the plate contacts of the neighbouring rotor, forming an electrical connection.

Inside the body of the rotor, 26 wires connect each pin on one side to a contact on the other in a complex pattern.

Most of the rotors are identified by Roman numerals, and each issued copy of rotor I, for instance, is wired identically to all others.

The same is true for the special thin beta and gamma rotors used in the M4 naval variant. By itself, a rotor performs only a very simple type of encryption , a simple substitution cipher.

For example, the pin corresponding to the letter E might be wired to the contact for letter T on the opposite face, and so on.

Enigma's security comes from using several rotors in series usually three or four and the regular stepping movement of the rotors, thus implementing a polyalphabetic substitution cipher.

Each rotor can be set to one of 26 possible starting positions when placed in an Enigma machine. After insertion, a rotor can be turned to the correct position by hand, using the grooved finger-wheel which protrudes from the internal Enigma cover when closed.

In order for the operator to know the rotor's position, each has an alphabet tyre or letter ring attached to the outside of the rotor disc, with 26 characters typically letters ; one of these is visible through the window for that slot in the cover, thus indicating the rotational position of the rotor.

In early models, the alphabet ring was fixed to the rotor disc. A later improvement was the ability to adjust the alphabet ring relative to the rotor disc.

The position of the ring was known as the Ringstellung "ring setting" , and that setting was a part of the initial setup needed prior to an operating session.

In modern terms it was a part of the initialization vector. Each rotor contains one or more notches that control rotor stepping. In the military variants, the notches are located on the alphabet ring.

The Army and Air Force Enigmas were used with several rotors, initially three. On 15 December , this changed to five, from which three were chosen for a given session.

This variation was probably intended as a security measure, but ultimately allowed the Polish Clock Method and British Banburismus attacks.

The Naval version of the Wehrmacht Enigma had always been issued with more rotors than the other services: At first six, then seven, and finally eight.

The four-rotor Naval Enigma M4 machine accommodated an extra rotor in the same space as the three-rotor version.

This was accomplished by replacing the original reflector with a thinner one and by adding a thin fourth rotor.

That fourth rotor was one of two types, Beta or Gamma , and never stepped, but could be manually set to any of 26 positions.

One of the 26 made the machine perform identically to the three-rotor machine. To avoid merely implementing a simple solvable substitution cipher, every key press caused one or more rotors to step by one twenty-sixth of a full rotation, before the electrical connections were made.

This changed the substitution alphabet used for encryption, ensuring that the cryptographic substitution was different at each new rotor position, producing a more formidable polyalphabetic substitution cipher.

The stepping mechanism varied slightly from model to model. The right-hand rotor stepped once with each keystroke, and other rotors stepped less frequently.

The advancement of a rotor other than the left-hand one was called a turnover by the British. This was achieved by a ratchet and pawl mechanism.

Each rotor had a ratchet with 26 teeth and every time a key was pressed, the set of spring-loaded pawls moved forward in unison, trying to engage with a ratchet.

The alphabet ring of the rotor to the right normally prevented this. As this ring rotated with its rotor, a notch machined into it would eventually align itself with the pawl, allowing it to engage with the ratchet, and advance the rotor on its left.

The right-hand pawl, having no rotor and ring to its right, stepped its rotor with every key depression. Similarly for rotors two and three.

For a two-notch rotor, the rotor to its left would turn over twice for each rotation. The position of the notch on each rotor was determined by the letter ring which could be adjusted in relation to the core containing the interconnections.

The points on the rings at which they caused the next wheel to move were as follows. The design also included a feature known as double-stepping.

This occurred when each pawl aligned with both the ratchet of its rotor and the rotating notched ring of the neighbouring rotor.

If a pawl engaged with a ratchet through alignment with a notch, as it moved forward it pushed against both the ratchet and the notch, advancing both rotors.

In a three-rotor machine, double-stepping affected rotor two only. If in moving forward the ratchet of rotor three was engaged, rotor two would move again on the subsequent keystroke, resulting in two consecutive steps.

Rotor two also pushes rotor one forward after 26 steps, but since rotor one moves forward with every keystroke anyway, there is no double-stepping.

To make room for the Naval fourth rotors, the reflector was made much thinner. The fourth rotor fitted into the space made available. No other changes were made, which eased the changeover.

Since there were only three pawls, the fourth rotor never stepped, but could be manually set into one of 26 possible positions. A device that was designed, but not implemented before the war's end, was the Lückenfüllerwalze gap-fill wheel that implemented irregular stepping.

It allowed field configuration of notches in all 26 positions. If the number of notches was a relative prime of 26 and the number of notches were different for each wheel, the stepping would be more unpredictable.

Like the Umkehrwalze-D it also allowed the internal wiring to be reconfigured. The current entry wheel Eintrittswalze in German , or entry stator , connects the plugboard to the rotor assembly.

If the plugboard is not present, the entry wheel instead connects the keyboard and lampboard to the rotor assembly. While the exact wiring used is of comparatively little importance to security, it proved an obstacle to Rejewski's progress during his study of the rotor wirings.

It took inspired guesswork for Rejewski to penetrate the modification. With the exception of models A and B , the last rotor came before a 'reflector' German: Umkehrwalze , meaning 'reversal rotor' , a patented feature unique to Enigma among the period's various rotor machines.

The reflector connected outputs of the last rotor in pairs, redirecting current back through the rotors by a different route.

The reflector ensured that Enigma would be self-reciprocal ; thus, with two identically configured machines, a message could be encrypted on one and decrypted on the other, without the need for a bulky mechanism to switch between encryption and decryption modes.

The reflector allowed a more compact design, but it also gave Enigma the property that no letter ever encrypted to itself.

This was a severe cryptological flaw that was subsequently exploited by codebreakers. In Model 'C', the reflector could be inserted in one of two different positions.

In Model 'D', the reflector could be set in 26 possible positions, although it did not move during encryption. In the Abwehr Enigma, the reflector stepped during encryption in a manner similar to the other wheels.

In the German Army and Air Force Enigma, the reflector was fixed and did not rotate; there were four versions.

The original version was marked 'A', and was replaced by Umkehrwalze B on 1 November A third version, Umkehrwalze C was used briefly in , possibly by mistake, and was solved by Hut 6.

The plugboard Steckerbrett in German permitted variable wiring that could be reconfigured by the operator visible on the front panel of Figure 1; some of the patch cords can be seen in the lid.

It was introduced on German Army versions in , and was soon adopted by the Reichsmarine German Navy. The plugboard contributed more cryptographic strength than an extra rotor.

Enigma without a plugboard known as unsteckered Enigma could be solved relatively straightforwardly using hand methods; these techniques were generally defeated by the plugboard, driving Allied cryptanalysts to develop special machines to solve it.

A cable placed onto the plugboard connected letters in pairs; for example, E and Q might be a steckered pair.

The effect was to swap those letters before and after the main rotor scrambling unit. For example, when an operator pressed E , the signal was diverted to Q before entering the rotors.

Up to 13 steckered pairs might be used at one time, although only 10 were normally used. Current flowed from the keyboard through the plugboard, and proceeded to the entry-rotor or Eintrittswalze.

Each letter on the plugboard had two jacks. Inserting a plug disconnected the upper jack from the keyboard and the lower jack to the entry-rotor of that letter.

The plug at the other end of the crosswired cable was inserted into another letter's jacks, thus switching the connections of the two letters.

Other features made various Enigma machines more secure or more convenient. Some M4 Enigmas used the Schreibmax , a small printer that could print the 26 letters on a narrow paper ribbon.

This eliminated the need for a second operator to read the lamps and transcribe the letters. The Schreibmax was placed on top of the Enigma machine and was connected to the lamp panel.

To install the printer, the lamp cover and light bulbs had to be removed. It improved both convenience and operational security; the printer could be installed remotely such that the signal officer operating the machine no longer had to see the decrypted plaintext.

Another accessory was the remote lamp panel Fernlesegerät. For machines equipped with the extra panel, the wooden case of the Enigma was wider and could store the extra panel.

A lamp panel version could be connected afterwards, but that required, as with the Schreibmax , that the lamp panel and light bulbs be removed.

In , the Luftwaffe introduced a plugboard switch, called the Uhr clock , a small box containing a switch with 40 positions. It replaced the standard plugs.

After connecting the plugs, as determined in the daily key sheet, the operator turned the switch into one of the 40 positions, each producing a different combination of plug wiring.

Most of these plug connections were, unlike the default plugs, not pair-wise. The Enigma transformation for each letter can be specified mathematically as a product of permutations.

Then the encryption E can be expressed as. After each key press, the rotors turn, changing the transformation.

For example, if the right-hand rotor R is rotated n positions, the transformation becomes. Similarly, the middle and left-hand rotors can be represented as j and k rotations of M and L.

The encryption transformation can then be described as. Combining three rotors from a set of five, each of the 3 rotor settings with 26 positions, and the plugboard with ten pairs of letters connected, the military Enigma has ,,,,,, different settings nearly quintillion or about 67 bits.

A German Enigma operator would be given a plaintext message to encrypt. After setting up his machine, he would type the message on the Enigma keyboard.

For each letter pressed, one lamp lit indicating a different letter according to a pseudo-random substitution determined by the electrical pathways inside the machine.

The letter indicated by the lamp would be recorded, typically by a second operator, as the cyphertext letter. The action of pressing a key also moved one or more rotors so that the next key press used a different electrical pathway, and thus a different substitution would occur even if the same plaintext letter were entered again.

For each key press there was rotation of at least the right hand rotor and less often the other two, resulting in a different substitution alphabet being used for every letter in the message.

This process continued until the message was completed. The cyphertext recorded by the second operator would then be transmitted, usually by radio in Morse code , to an operator of another Enigma machine.

In use, the Enigma required a list of daily key settings and auxiliary documents. In German military practice, communications were divided into separate networks, each using different settings.

These communication nets were termed keys at Bletchley Park , and were assigned code names , such as Red , Chaffinch , and Shark.

Each unit operating in a network was given the same settings list for its Enigma, valid for a period of time.

The procedures for German Naval Enigma were more elaborate and more secure than those in other services and employed auxiliary codebooks.

Navy codebooks were printed in red, water-soluble ink on pink paper so that they could easily be destroyed if they were endangered or if the vessel was sunk.

An Enigma machine's setting its cryptographic key in modern terms; Schlüssel in German specified each operator-adjustable aspect of the machine:.

For a message to be correctly encrypted and decrypted, both sender and receiver had to configure their Enigma in the same way; rotor selection and order, ring positions, plugboard connections and starting rotor positions must be identical.

Except for the starting positions, these settings were established beforehand, distributed in key lists and changed daily.

For example, the settings for the 18th day of the month in the German Luftwaffe Enigma key list number see image were as follows:. Enigma was designed to be secure even if the rotor wiring was known to an opponent, although in practice considerable effort protected the wiring configuration.

Most of the key was kept constant for a set time period, typically a day. A different initial rotor position was used for each message, a concept similar to an initialisation vector in modern cryptography.

The reason is that encrypting many messages with identical or near-identical settings termed in cryptanalysis as being in depth , would enable an attack using a statistical procedure such as Friedman's Index of coincidence.

The exact method used was termed the indicator procedure. Design weakness and operator sloppiness in these indicator procedures were two of the main weaknesses that made cracking Enigma possible.

One of the earliest indicator procedures for the Enigma was cryptographically flawed and allowed Polish cryptanalysts to make the initial breaks into the plugboard Enigma.

The procedure had the operator set his machine in accordance with the secret settings that all operators on the net shared. The settings included an initial position for the rotors the Grundstellung , say, AOH.

The operator turned his rotors until AOH was visible through the rotor windows. At that point, the operator chose his own arbitrary starting position for the message he would send.

An operator might select EIN , and that became the message setting for that encryption session. This was then transmitted, at which point the operator would turn the rotors to his message settings, EIN in this example, and then type the plaintext of the message.

In this example, EINEIN emerged on the lamps, so the operator would learn the message setting that the sender used to encrypt this message.

The receiving operator would set his rotors to EIN , type in the rest of the ciphertext, and get the deciphered message. This indicator scheme had two weaknesses.

First, the use of a global initial position Grundstellung meant all message keys used the same polyalphabetic substitution.

In later indicator procedures, the operator selected his initial position for encrypting the indicator and sent that initial position in the clear.

The second problem was the repetition of the indicator, which was a serious security flaw. The message setting was encoded twice, resulting in a relation between first and fourth, second and fifth, and third and sixth character.

These security flaws enabled the Polish Cipher Bureau to break into the pre-war Enigma system as early as The early indicator procedure was subsequently described by German cryptanalysts as the "faulty indicator technique".

During World War II, codebooks were only used each day to set up the rotors, their ring settings and the plugboard.

For each message, the operator selected a random start position, let's say WZA , and a random message key, perhaps SXT.

Assume the result was UHL. He then set up the message key, SXT , as the start position and encrypted the message. Next, he used this SXT message setting as the start position to decrypt the message.

This way, each ground setting was different and the new procedure avoided the security flaw of double encoded message settings.

This procedure was used by Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe only. The Kriegsmarine procedures on sending messages with the Enigma were far more complex and elaborate.

Prior to encryption the message was encoded using the Kurzsignalheft code book. The Kurzsignalheft contained tables to convert sentences into four-letter groups.

A great many choices were included, for example, logistic matters such as refuelling and rendezvous with supply ships, positions and grid lists, harbour names, countries, weapons, weather conditions, enemy positions and ships, date and time tables.

Another codebook contained the Kenngruppen and Spruchschlüssel : the key identification and message key. The Army Enigma machine used only the 26 alphabet characters.

Punctuation was replaced with rare character combinations. A space was omitted or replaced with an X. The X was generally used as full-stop.

Some punctuation marks were different in other parts of the armed forces. The Kriegsmarine replaced the comma with Y and the question mark with UD.

The Kriegsmarine , using the four rotor Enigma, had four-character groups. Frequently used names or words were varied as much as possible.

To make cryptanalysis harder, messages were limited to characters. Longer messages were divided into several parts, each using a different message key.

The character substitutions by the Enigma machine as a whole can be expressed as a string of letters with each position occupied by the character that will replace the character at the corresponding position in the alphabet.

Since the operation of an Enigma machine encoding a message is a series of such configurations, each associated with a single character being encoded, a sequence of such representations can be used to represent the operation of the machine as it encodes a message.

For example, the process of encoding the first sentence of the main body of the famous "Dönitz message" [27] to. The character mappings for a given configuration of the machine are in turn the result of a series of such mappings applied by each pass through a component of the machine: the encoding of a character resulting from the application of a given component's mapping serves as the input to the mapping of the subsequent component.

For example, the 4th step in the encoding above can be expanded to show each of these stages using the same representation of mappings and highlighting for the encoded character:.

Here the encoding begins trivially with the first "mapping" representing the keyboard which has no effect , followed by the plugboard, configured as AE.

The Enigma family included multiple designs. The earliest were commercial models dating from the early s. Starting in the mids, the German military began to use Enigma, making a number of security-related changes.

Various nations either adopted or adapted the design for their own cipher machines. An estimated , Enigma machines were constructed.

After the end of World War II, the Allies sold captured Enigma machines, still widely considered secure, to developing countries.

On 23 February , [ failed verification ] Arthur Scherbius applied for a patent for a ciphering machine that used rotors.

They approached the German Navy and Foreign Office with their design, but neither agency was interested. Chiffriermaschinen AG began advertising a rotor machine, Enigma model A , which was exhibited at the Congress of the International Postal Union in The machine was heavy and bulky, incorporating a typewriter.

In Enigma model B was introduced, and was of a similar construction. Model C was smaller and more portable than its predecessors.

It lacked a typewriter, relying on the operator; hence the informal name of "glowlamp Enigma" to distinguish it from models A and B. The Enigma C quickly gave way to Enigma D In Hugh Foss at the British Government Code and Cypher School was able to show that commercial Enigma machines could be broken, provided suitable cribs were available.

Other countries used Enigma machines. The Spanish also used commercial Enigma machines during their Civil War. British codebreakers succeeded in breaking these machines, which lacked a plugboard.

Main article: Enigma videography. Retrieved Media Control. Hung Medien. Top peaks to December Ryan, Gavin Australia's Music Charts — Archived from the original on Official Charts Company.

Music Week. Retrieved 18 November Bundesverband Musikindustrie. IFPI Austria. IFPI Sweden. Archived from the original PDF on June 16, IFPI Switzerland.

Amazon Germany. MCMXC a. Trilogy 15 Years After. Discography A.

Übersetzung Spanisch-Deutsch für enigma im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. It can change at any time, depending on unexpected parameters, which involve this enigma between the body and mind, and which in fact bind psychoanalysis to. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Enigma“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Now we have to add the function that Enigma will call to execute our. Übersetzung für 'enigma' im kostenlosen Italienisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung von enigma – Englisch–Deutsch Wörterbuch. enigma. noun. /​iˈniɡmə/. ○. anything difficult to understand; a mystery. das Rätsel.

Enigma Deutsch Video

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The third CD is a collection of "lost tracks", musical experiments which never were finalized and released previously.

The public were then asked to vote, with the winning submission "Fei mea" being provided by Latvian singer Fox Lima for the chorus.

The top 3 runners up: Mark Joshua from Brazil, J. Spring from Spain and Rasa Serra from Lithuania provided other important parts of the vocals like the bridge, backing and verse of the final version of the single.

Fans also influenced further stages of the song's creation by voting on elements such as a lead instrument, general mood and style of the track.

It became the first song ever created for and by the fans via the internet. It features guest musicians Brazilian singer-songwriter Mark Josher, Indonesian singer Anggun , female voice Nanuk, and English electro-pop duo Aquilo.

This marks the first time Enigma's music has ever been performed live. Cretu recorded the first five Enigma albums at A. Studios , a home recording studio located on the Spanish island of Ibiza.

The studio's equipment was updated numerous times throughout its history. Voyageur and A Posteriori were recorded using an all-in-one mobile digital recording studio named Alchemist.

The samples were taken from Capella Antiqua's LP Paschale Mysterium ; while the musical compositions were in public domain, Capella Antiqua's recording of them was copyrighted.

European law also recognizes moral rights droit moral in works. Cretu was not spared over the issue of sampling when in , Difang and Igay Duana from Taiwan 's Ami tribe filed a suit over uncredited vocals in " Return to Innocence ".

Both of the lawsuits were settled, with the source of each sample being granted compensation and credit for the sampled performance; however, the anonymity that Cretu intended to keep after the release of the first album [46] was shattered due to the first lawsuit.

Soon after working with Michael Cretu on the first Enigma album, German producer Frank Peterson left the project in order to focus on Gregorian , a band that performs mostly covers of modern pop and rock songs with Gregorian-like vocals and symphonic instruments.

Former members and guest artists [56]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German musical project. Worldbeat new-age [2] downtempo electronica ambient experimental.

Virgin EMI Charisma. David Fairstein — lyrics — Frank Peterson F. Spring — vocals, co-writer Mark Josher Marcelo Amaral Pontello — vocals, co-writer , Rasa Veretenceviene Rasa Serra — vocals, co-writer Anggun — vocals Aquilo — vocals Michael Kunze — story, co-writer Main article: Enigma discography.

Retrieved Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 25 August Retrieved on 25 August Slant Magazine.

Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 7 February Entertainment Weekly. BBC , 13 November Billboard : 1, Retrieved 11 August Billboard : Billboard , 18 May Retrieved on 26 August Archived from the original on The Boston Globe.

Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 18 February Archived from the original on October 27, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link.

Channel News Asia. Roper Business Wire. The Times. Studios on EnigmaMusica in Spanish ". Enigma Social Song.

Original Enigma Voices. BBC News. Virtual Fan Club". The diagram on the right shows how the electrical pathway changes with each key depression, which causes rotation of at least the right-hand rotor.

Current passes into the set of rotors, into and back out of the reflector, and out through the rotors again.

The greyed-out lines are other possible paths within each rotor; these are hard-wired from one side of each rotor to the other.

The letter A encrypts differently with consecutive key presses, first to G , and then to C. This is because the right-hand rotor steps rotates one position on each key press, sending the signal on a completely different route.

Eventually other rotors step with a key press. The rotors alternatively wheels or drums , Walzen in German form the heart of an Enigma machine.

When the rotors are mounted side-by-side on the spindle, the pins of one rotor rest against the plate contacts of the neighbouring rotor, forming an electrical connection.

Inside the body of the rotor, 26 wires connect each pin on one side to a contact on the other in a complex pattern. Most of the rotors are identified by Roman numerals, and each issued copy of rotor I, for instance, is wired identically to all others.

The same is true for the special thin beta and gamma rotors used in the M4 naval variant. By itself, a rotor performs only a very simple type of encryption , a simple substitution cipher.

For example, the pin corresponding to the letter E might be wired to the contact for letter T on the opposite face, and so on.

Enigma's security comes from using several rotors in series usually three or four and the regular stepping movement of the rotors, thus implementing a polyalphabetic substitution cipher.

Each rotor can be set to one of 26 possible starting positions when placed in an Enigma machine. After insertion, a rotor can be turned to the correct position by hand, using the grooved finger-wheel which protrudes from the internal Enigma cover when closed.

In order for the operator to know the rotor's position, each has an alphabet tyre or letter ring attached to the outside of the rotor disc, with 26 characters typically letters ; one of these is visible through the window for that slot in the cover, thus indicating the rotational position of the rotor.

In early models, the alphabet ring was fixed to the rotor disc. A later improvement was the ability to adjust the alphabet ring relative to the rotor disc.

The position of the ring was known as the Ringstellung "ring setting" , and that setting was a part of the initial setup needed prior to an operating session.

In modern terms it was a part of the initialization vector. Each rotor contains one or more notches that control rotor stepping.

In the military variants, the notches are located on the alphabet ring. The Army and Air Force Enigmas were used with several rotors, initially three.

On 15 December , this changed to five, from which three were chosen for a given session. This variation was probably intended as a security measure, but ultimately allowed the Polish Clock Method and British Banburismus attacks.

The Naval version of the Wehrmacht Enigma had always been issued with more rotors than the other services: At first six, then seven, and finally eight.

The four-rotor Naval Enigma M4 machine accommodated an extra rotor in the same space as the three-rotor version. This was accomplished by replacing the original reflector with a thinner one and by adding a thin fourth rotor.

That fourth rotor was one of two types, Beta or Gamma , and never stepped, but could be manually set to any of 26 positions. One of the 26 made the machine perform identically to the three-rotor machine.

To avoid merely implementing a simple solvable substitution cipher, every key press caused one or more rotors to step by one twenty-sixth of a full rotation, before the electrical connections were made.

This changed the substitution alphabet used for encryption, ensuring that the cryptographic substitution was different at each new rotor position, producing a more formidable polyalphabetic substitution cipher.

The stepping mechanism varied slightly from model to model. The right-hand rotor stepped once with each keystroke, and other rotors stepped less frequently.

The advancement of a rotor other than the left-hand one was called a turnover by the British.

This was achieved by a ratchet and pawl mechanism. Each rotor had a ratchet with 26 teeth and every time a key was pressed, the set of spring-loaded pawls moved forward in unison, trying to engage with a ratchet.

The alphabet ring of the rotor to the right normally prevented this. As this ring rotated with its rotor, a notch machined into it would eventually align itself with the pawl, allowing it to engage with the ratchet, and advance the rotor on its left.

The right-hand pawl, having no rotor and ring to its right, stepped its rotor with every key depression. Similarly for rotors two and three.

For a two-notch rotor, the rotor to its left would turn over twice for each rotation. The position of the notch on each rotor was determined by the letter ring which could be adjusted in relation to the core containing the interconnections.

The points on the rings at which they caused the next wheel to move were as follows. The design also included a feature known as double-stepping.

This occurred when each pawl aligned with both the ratchet of its rotor and the rotating notched ring of the neighbouring rotor.

If a pawl engaged with a ratchet through alignment with a notch, as it moved forward it pushed against both the ratchet and the notch, advancing both rotors.

In a three-rotor machine, double-stepping affected rotor two only. If in moving forward the ratchet of rotor three was engaged, rotor two would move again on the subsequent keystroke, resulting in two consecutive steps.

Rotor two also pushes rotor one forward after 26 steps, but since rotor one moves forward with every keystroke anyway, there is no double-stepping.

To make room for the Naval fourth rotors, the reflector was made much thinner. The fourth rotor fitted into the space made available.

No other changes were made, which eased the changeover. Since there were only three pawls, the fourth rotor never stepped, but could be manually set into one of 26 possible positions.

A device that was designed, but not implemented before the war's end, was the Lückenfüllerwalze gap-fill wheel that implemented irregular stepping.

It allowed field configuration of notches in all 26 positions. If the number of notches was a relative prime of 26 and the number of notches were different for each wheel, the stepping would be more unpredictable.

Like the Umkehrwalze-D it also allowed the internal wiring to be reconfigured. The current entry wheel Eintrittswalze in German , or entry stator , connects the plugboard to the rotor assembly.

If the plugboard is not present, the entry wheel instead connects the keyboard and lampboard to the rotor assembly.

While the exact wiring used is of comparatively little importance to security, it proved an obstacle to Rejewski's progress during his study of the rotor wirings.

It took inspired guesswork for Rejewski to penetrate the modification. With the exception of models A and B , the last rotor came before a 'reflector' German: Umkehrwalze , meaning 'reversal rotor' , a patented feature unique to Enigma among the period's various rotor machines.

The reflector connected outputs of the last rotor in pairs, redirecting current back through the rotors by a different route.

The reflector ensured that Enigma would be self-reciprocal ; thus, with two identically configured machines, a message could be encrypted on one and decrypted on the other, without the need for a bulky mechanism to switch between encryption and decryption modes.

The reflector allowed a more compact design, but it also gave Enigma the property that no letter ever encrypted to itself. This was a severe cryptological flaw that was subsequently exploited by codebreakers.

In Model 'C', the reflector could be inserted in one of two different positions. In Model 'D', the reflector could be set in 26 possible positions, although it did not move during encryption.

In the Abwehr Enigma, the reflector stepped during encryption in a manner similar to the other wheels. In the German Army and Air Force Enigma, the reflector was fixed and did not rotate; there were four versions.

The original version was marked 'A', and was replaced by Umkehrwalze B on 1 November A third version, Umkehrwalze C was used briefly in , possibly by mistake, and was solved by Hut 6.

The plugboard Steckerbrett in German permitted variable wiring that could be reconfigured by the operator visible on the front panel of Figure 1; some of the patch cords can be seen in the lid.

It was introduced on German Army versions in , and was soon adopted by the Reichsmarine German Navy. The plugboard contributed more cryptographic strength than an extra rotor.

Enigma without a plugboard known as unsteckered Enigma could be solved relatively straightforwardly using hand methods; these techniques were generally defeated by the plugboard, driving Allied cryptanalysts to develop special machines to solve it.

A cable placed onto the plugboard connected letters in pairs; for example, E and Q might be a steckered pair. The effect was to swap those letters before and after the main rotor scrambling unit.

For example, when an operator pressed E , the signal was diverted to Q before entering the rotors. Up to 13 steckered pairs might be used at one time, although only 10 were normally used.

Current flowed from the keyboard through the plugboard, and proceeded to the entry-rotor or Eintrittswalze. Each letter on the plugboard had two jacks.

Inserting a plug disconnected the upper jack from the keyboard and the lower jack to the entry-rotor of that letter. The plug at the other end of the crosswired cable was inserted into another letter's jacks, thus switching the connections of the two letters.

Other features made various Enigma machines more secure or more convenient. Some M4 Enigmas used the Schreibmax , a small printer that could print the 26 letters on a narrow paper ribbon.

This eliminated the need for a second operator to read the lamps and transcribe the letters. The Schreibmax was placed on top of the Enigma machine and was connected to the lamp panel.

To install the printer, the lamp cover and light bulbs had to be removed. It improved both convenience and operational security; the printer could be installed remotely such that the signal officer operating the machine no longer had to see the decrypted plaintext.

Another accessory was the remote lamp panel Fernlesegerät. For machines equipped with the extra panel, the wooden case of the Enigma was wider and could store the extra panel.

A lamp panel version could be connected afterwards, but that required, as with the Schreibmax , that the lamp panel and light bulbs be removed.

In , the Luftwaffe introduced a plugboard switch, called the Uhr clock , a small box containing a switch with 40 positions.

It replaced the standard plugs. After connecting the plugs, as determined in the daily key sheet, the operator turned the switch into one of the 40 positions, each producing a different combination of plug wiring.

Most of these plug connections were, unlike the default plugs, not pair-wise. The Enigma transformation for each letter can be specified mathematically as a product of permutations.

Then the encryption E can be expressed as. After each key press, the rotors turn, changing the transformation. For example, if the right-hand rotor R is rotated n positions, the transformation becomes.

Similarly, the middle and left-hand rotors can be represented as j and k rotations of M and L. The encryption transformation can then be described as.

Combining three rotors from a set of five, each of the 3 rotor settings with 26 positions, and the plugboard with ten pairs of letters connected, the military Enigma has ,,,,,, different settings nearly quintillion or about 67 bits.

A German Enigma operator would be given a plaintext message to encrypt. After setting up his machine, he would type the message on the Enigma keyboard.

For each letter pressed, one lamp lit indicating a different letter according to a pseudo-random substitution determined by the electrical pathways inside the machine.

The letter indicated by the lamp would be recorded, typically by a second operator, as the cyphertext letter.

The action of pressing a key also moved one or more rotors so that the next key press used a different electrical pathway, and thus a different substitution would occur even if the same plaintext letter were entered again.

For each key press there was rotation of at least the right hand rotor and less often the other two, resulting in a different substitution alphabet being used for every letter in the message.

This process continued until the message was completed. The cyphertext recorded by the second operator would then be transmitted, usually by radio in Morse code , to an operator of another Enigma machine.

In use, the Enigma required a list of daily key settings and auxiliary documents. In German military practice, communications were divided into separate networks, each using different settings.

These communication nets were termed keys at Bletchley Park , and were assigned code names , such as Red , Chaffinch , and Shark.

Each unit operating in a network was given the same settings list for its Enigma, valid for a period of time.

The procedures for German Naval Enigma were more elaborate and more secure than those in other services and employed auxiliary codebooks.

Navy codebooks were printed in red, water-soluble ink on pink paper so that they could easily be destroyed if they were endangered or if the vessel was sunk.

An Enigma machine's setting its cryptographic key in modern terms; Schlüssel in German specified each operator-adjustable aspect of the machine:.

For a message to be correctly encrypted and decrypted, both sender and receiver had to configure their Enigma in the same way; rotor selection and order, ring positions, plugboard connections and starting rotor positions must be identical.

Except for the starting positions, these settings were established beforehand, distributed in key lists and changed daily. For example, the settings for the 18th day of the month in the German Luftwaffe Enigma key list number see image were as follows:.

Enigma was designed to be secure even if the rotor wiring was known to an opponent, although in practice considerable effort protected the wiring configuration.

Most of the key was kept constant for a set time period, typically a day. A different initial rotor position was used for each message, a concept similar to an initialisation vector in modern cryptography.

The reason is that encrypting many messages with identical or near-identical settings termed in cryptanalysis as being in depth , would enable an attack using a statistical procedure such as Friedman's Index of coincidence.

The exact method used was termed the indicator procedure. Design weakness and operator sloppiness in these indicator procedures were two of the main weaknesses that made cracking Enigma possible.

One of the earliest indicator procedures for the Enigma was cryptographically flawed and allowed Polish cryptanalysts to make the initial breaks into the plugboard Enigma.

The procedure had the operator set his machine in accordance with the secret settings that all operators on the net shared.

The settings included an initial position for the rotors the Grundstellung , say, AOH. The operator turned his rotors until AOH was visible through the rotor windows.

At that point, the operator chose his own arbitrary starting position for the message he would send. An operator might select EIN , and that became the message setting for that encryption session.

This was then transmitted, at which point the operator would turn the rotors to his message settings, EIN in this example, and then type the plaintext of the message.

In this example, EINEIN emerged on the lamps, so the operator would learn the message setting that the sender used to encrypt this message.

The receiving operator would set his rotors to EIN , type in the rest of the ciphertext, and get the deciphered message.

This indicator scheme had two weaknesses. First, the use of a global initial position Grundstellung meant all message keys used the same polyalphabetic substitution.

In later indicator procedures, the operator selected his initial position for encrypting the indicator and sent that initial position in the clear.

The second problem was the repetition of the indicator, which was a serious security flaw. The message setting was encoded twice, resulting in a relation between first and fourth, second and fifth, and third and sixth character.

These security flaws enabled the Polish Cipher Bureau to break into the pre-war Enigma system as early as The early indicator procedure was subsequently described by German cryptanalysts as the "faulty indicator technique".

During World War II, codebooks were only used each day to set up the rotors, their ring settings and the plugboard.

For each message, the operator selected a random start position, let's say WZA , and a random message key, perhaps SXT.

Assume the result was UHL. He then set up the message key, SXT , as the start position and encrypted the message. Next, he used this SXT message setting as the start position to decrypt the message.

This way, each ground setting was different and the new procedure avoided the security flaw of double encoded message settings. This procedure was used by Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe only.

The Kriegsmarine procedures on sending messages with the Enigma were far more complex and elaborate. Prior to encryption the message was encoded using the Kurzsignalheft code book.

The Kurzsignalheft contained tables to convert sentences into four-letter groups. A great many choices were included, for example, logistic matters such as refuelling and rendezvous with supply ships, positions and grid lists, harbour names, countries, weapons, weather conditions, enemy positions and ships, date and time tables.

Another codebook contained the Kenngruppen and Spruchschlüssel : the key identification and message key. The Army Enigma machine used only the 26 alphabet characters.

Punctuation was replaced with rare character combinations. A space was omitted or replaced with an X. The X was generally used as full-stop.

Some punctuation marks were different in other parts of the armed forces. The Kriegsmarine replaced the comma with Y and the question mark with UD.

The Kriegsmarine , using the four rotor Enigma, had four-character groups. Frequently used names or words were varied as much as possible.

To make cryptanalysis harder, messages were limited to characters. Longer messages were divided into several parts, each using a different message key.

The character substitutions by the Enigma machine as a whole can be expressed as a string of letters with each position occupied by the character that will replace the character at the corresponding position in the alphabet.

Since the operation of an Enigma machine encoding a message is a series of such configurations, each associated with a single character being encoded, a sequence of such representations can be used to represent the operation of the machine as it encodes a message.

For example, the process of encoding the first sentence of the main body of the famous "Dönitz message" [27] to.

The character mappings for a given configuration of the machine are in turn the result of a series of such mappings applied by each pass through a component of the machine: the encoding of a character resulting from the application of a given component's mapping serves as the input to the mapping of the subsequent component.

For example, the 4th step in the encoding above can be expanded to show each of these stages using the same representation of mappings and highlighting for the encoded character:.

Here the encoding begins trivially with the first "mapping" representing the keyboard which has no effect , followed by the plugboard, configured as AE.

The Enigma family included multiple designs. The earliest were commercial models dating from the early s. Starting in the mids, the German military began to use Enigma, making a number of security-related changes.

Various nations either adopted or adapted the design for their own cipher machines. An estimated , Enigma machines were constructed.

After the end of World War II, the Allies sold captured Enigma machines, still widely considered secure, to developing countries.

On 23 February , [ failed verification ] Arthur Scherbius applied for a patent for a ciphering machine that used rotors.

They approached the German Navy and Foreign Office with their design, but neither agency was interested. Chiffriermaschinen AG began advertising a rotor machine, Enigma model A , which was exhibited at the Congress of the International Postal Union in The machine was heavy and bulky, incorporating a typewriter.

In Enigma model B was introduced, and was of a similar construction. Model C was smaller and more portable than its predecessors.

It lacked a typewriter, relying on the operator; hence the informal name of "glowlamp Enigma" to distinguish it from models A and B.

The Enigma C quickly gave way to Enigma D In Hugh Foss at the British Government Code and Cypher School was able to show that commercial Enigma machines could be broken, provided suitable cribs were available.

Other countries used Enigma machines. The Spanish also used commercial Enigma machines during their Civil War. British codebreakers succeeded in breaking these machines, which lacked a plugboard.

In the Polish Cipher Bureau detected that it was in use for high-level military communication, but it was soon withdrawn, as it was unreliable and jammed frequently.

An Enigma T model, code-named Tirpitz , was used by Japan. Once the British figured out Enigma's principle of operation, they fixed the problem with it and created their own, the Typex , which the Germans believed to be unsolvable.

The Reichsmarine was the first military branch to adopt Enigma. This version, named Funkschlüssel C "Radio cipher C" , had been put into production by and was introduced into service in This Enigma variant was a four-wheel unsteckered machine with multiple notches on the rotors.

This model was equipped with a counter that incremented upon each key press, and so is also known as the "counter machine" or the Zählwerk Enigma.

Enigma machine G was modified to the Enigma I by June The major difference between Enigma I German Army version from , and commercial Enigma models was the addition of a plugboard to swap pairs of letters, greatly increasing cryptographic strength.

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